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Size control is a fundamental question in biology, showing incremental complexity in case of plants whose cells possess a rigid cell wall. The phytohormone auxin is a vital growth regulator with central importance for differential growth control. Here we show that growth inducing and repressing auxin conditions correlate with reduced and enhanced complexity of extracellular xyloglucans, respectively. In agreement, genetic interference with xyloglucan complexity distinctly modulates auxin-dependent differential growth rates. Our work proposes that an auxin-dependent, spatially defined effect on xyloglucan structure and its effect on cell wall mechanics specify differential, gravitropic hypocotyl growth. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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