Identification of novel mutations associated with cycloserine resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Objectives: D-cycloserine (DCS) is an important second-line drug used to treat multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms of resistance to DCS are not well understood. Here we investigated the molecular basis of DCS resistance using in vitro isolated resistant mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: M. tuberculosis H37Rv was subjected to mutant selection on 7H11 agar plates containing varying concentrations of DCS. A total of 35 DCS-resistant mutants were isolated and 18 mutants were subjected to whole genome sequencing. The identified mutations associated with DCS resistance were confirmed by PCR-Sanger sequencing. Results: We identified mutations in 17 genes that are associated with DCS resistance. Except mutations in alr (rv3423c) which is known to be involved in DCS resistance, 16 new genes rv0059, betP (rv0917), rv0221, rv1403c, rv1683, rv1726, gabD2 (rv1731), rv2749, sugI (rv3331), hisC2 (rv3772), single mutation in 5 prime intergenic region of rv3345c and rv1435c, and insertion in 3 prime region of rv0759c were identified as solo mutations in their respective DCS-resistant mutants. Our findings indicate that the mechanisms of DCS resistance are more complex than previously thought and involve genes participating in different cellular functions such as lipid metabolism, methyltransferase, stress response, and transport proteins. Conclusions: New mutations in diverse genes associated with DCS are identified, which shed new light on the mechanisms of action and resistance of DCS. Future studies are needed to verify these findings in clinical strains so that molecular detection of DCS resistance for improved treatment of MDR-TB can be developed.
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