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The Manganese Salt (MnJ) Functions as A Potent Universal Adjuvant

By Rui Zhang, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Xiaoming Wei, Mengyin Sha, Miao Jing, Mengze Lv, Jing Xu, Yi Wan, Zhengfan Jiang

Posted 27 Sep 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/783910

Aluminum adjuvants have been used for a century in various vaccines due to its ability to potentiate humoral immunity and safety records since 1920s. Manganese is an essential micronutrient required for diverse biological activities in cells. We previously found that Mn2+ is a strong type I-interferon stimulator activating the cGAS-STING pathway. Herein we report that a colloidal manganese salt (MnJ) is a potent adjuvant to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly CTL activation. When administrated intranasally, MnJ was also a strong mucosal adjuvant, inducing high levels of IgA antibodies. MnJ strongly promoted dendritic cell maturation and antigen-specific T cell activation. Interestingly, IL-1/-18 induction and release by Mn2+-activated ASC-mediated inflammasomes were not observed. MnJ showed great adjuvant effects to all tested antigens including inactivated viruses, recombinant proteins and peptides by either intramuscular or intranasal immunization. These findings may have implications in developing potent but safe Mn2+-containing vaccines.

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