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Cross-disorder GWAS meta-analysis for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome

By Zhiyu Yang, Hanrui Wu, Phil H. Lee, Fotis Tsetsos, Lea K. Davis, Dongmei Yu, Sang Hong Lee, Søren D. Dalsgaard, Jan Haavik, Csaba Barta, Tetyana Zayats, Valsamma Eapen, Naomi R. Wray, Bernie Devlin, Mark Daly, Benjamin Neale, Anders Børglum, James Joseph Crowley, Jeremiah Scharf, Carol A Mathews, Stephen Faraone, Barbara Franke, Manuel Mattheisen, Jordan W. Smoller, Peristera Paschou

Posted 16 Sep 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/770222

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and Tourette Syndrome (TS) are among the most prevalent neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. High comorbidity rates across these four disorders point toward a common etiological thread that could be connecting them across the repetitive behaviors-impulsivity-compulsivity continuum. Aiming to uncover the shared genetic basis across ADHD, ASD, OCD, and TS, we undertake a systematic cross-disorder meta-analysis, integrating summary statistics from all currently available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for these disorders, as made available by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH). We present analysis of a combined dataset of 93,294 individuals, across 6,788,510 markers and investigate associations on the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), gene and pathway levels across all four disorders but also pairwise. In the ADHD-ASD-OCD-TS cross disorder GWAS meta-analysis, we uncover in total 297 genomewide significant variants from six LD (linkage disequilibrium) -independent genomic risk regions. Out of these genomewide significant association results, 199 SNPs, that map onto four genomic regions, show high posterior probability for association with at least three of the studied disorders (m-value>0.9). Gene-based GWAS meta-analysis across ADHD, ASD, OCD, and TS identified 21 genes significantly associated under Bonferroni correction. Out of those, 15 could not be identified as significantly associated based on the individual disorder GWAS dataset, indicating increased power in the cross-disorder comparisons. Cross-disorder tissue-specificity analysis implicates the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (stress response) as possibly underlying shared pathophysiology across ADHD, ASD, OCD, and TS. Our work highlights genetic variants and genes that may contribute to overlapping neurobiology across the four studied disorders and highlights the value of re-defining the framework for the study across this spectrum of highly comorbid disorders, by using transdiagnostic approaches.

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