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Transcriptional profiling of hematopoietic cell subpopulations has helped characterize the developmental stages of the hematopoietic system and the molecular basis of malignant and non-malignant blood diseases for the past three decades. The introduction of high-throughput RNA sequencing has increased knowledge of the full repertoire of RNA molecules in hematopoietic cells of different types, without relying on prior gene annotation. Here, we introduce the analysis of the BLUEPRINT consortium gene expression data for mature hematopoietic cells, comprising 90 total RNA and 32 small RNA sequencing experiments, from 27 different cell types. We used these data to describe the transcriptional profile of each cell type at the gene and isoform level using existing gene annotations. Moreover, we used guided transcriptome assembly to extend the annotation of the transcribed genome, which led to the identification of hundreds of novel non-coding RNA genes, which display a high degree of cell type specificity. We also characterized the expression of circular RNAs and found that these are also highly cell type specific. This resource refines the active transcriptional landscape of mature hematopoietic cells, highlights abundant genes and transcriptional isoforms for each cell type, and provides valuable data and visualisation tools for the scientific community working on hematological development and diseases.

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