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An integrated analysis across separate task domains reveals a lack of common processing in the ADHD brain
Roselyne J. Chauvin,
Dirk J. Heslenfeld,
Pieter J. Hoekstra,
Posted 05 Sep 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/755603
Posted 05 Sep 2019
Background: Multiple cognitive theories have been proposed to explain the cognitive impairments observed in Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Functional imaging studies building on these theories reveal a heterogeneous pattern of neuronal dysfunction and fail to provide an overarching perspective on the pathophysiology of ADHD. Going beyond single task analyses, we here apply a biotyping strategy that integrates results across multiple task domains and assess common neuronal alteration. Method: We integrated across multiple functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions: resting-state, and working memory, monetary incentive delay, and stop signal tasks collected in 96 participants with ADHD, 78 unaffected siblings, and 156 controls (total N=330, age range=8-27 years). We indexed whether connections were modulated away from the resting-state baseline, across all tasks or specific to individual task paradigms and we then assessed their group membership. Results: Participants with ADHD and unaffected siblings exhibited a reduced number of connections that were modulated regardless of task, compared to control, but an increased number of task-specific connections. However, siblings over-modulated connections also modulated by the other groups, while participants with ADHD relied on over-modulating task-specific patterns of connectivity. Finally, task common connections were reproducible in controls, yet highly variable in both ADHD and siblings. Conclusions: Participants with ADHD and unaffected siblings exhibit a similar neurobiological profile characterized by a lack of across task connections and an increase in task-tailored connections. Although showing a similar functional brain fingerprint, siblings might compensate through increasing the amount of modulation. The absence of common connections is a potential predictive biomarker of an at-risk ADHD profile.
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