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Plasma non-esterified fatty acids contribute to increased coagulability in type-2 diabetes through altered plasma zinc speciation

By Amélie I. S. Sobczak, Kondwani G. H. Katundu, Fladia A. Phoenix, Siavash Khazaipoul, Ruitao Yu, Fanuel Lampiao, Fiona Stefanowicz, Claudia A. Blindauer, Samantha J. Pitt, Terry K. Smith, Ramzi A. Ajjan, Alan J. Stewart

Posted 28 Aug 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/744482

Zn2+ is an essential regulator of coagulation and its availability in plasma is fine-tuned through buffering by human serum albumin (HSA). Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) transported by HSA reduce its ability to bind/buffer Zn2+. This is important as plasma NEFA levels are elevated in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other diseases with an increased risk of developing thrombotic complications. The presence of 5 mol. eq. of myristate, palmitate, stearate, palmitoleate and palmitelaidate reduced Zn2+ binding to HSA. Addition of myristate and Zn2+ increased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma and increased fibrin clot density and clot time in a purified protein system. The concentrations of key saturated (myristate, palmitate, stearate) and monounsaturated (oleate, vaccinate) NEFAs positively correlated with clot density in subjects with T2DM (and controls). Collectively, these data strongly support the concept that elevated NEFA levels contribute to an increased thrombotic risk in T2DM through dysregulation of plasma zinc speciation.

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