Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been proposed to act as point sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Hospital sewage may contribute to the spread of ARB and ARGs as it contains the feces and urine of hospitalized patients, who are more frequently colonized with multi-drug resistant bacteria than the general population. However, whether hospital sewage noticeably contributes to the quantity and diversity of ARGs in the general sewerage system has not yet been determined. Here, we employed culture-independent techniques, namely 16S rRNA and nanolitre-scale quantitative PCRs, to describe the role of hospital effluent as a point source of ARGs in the sewer system, through comparing microbiota composition and levels of ARGs in hospital sewage with WWTP influent, WWTP effluent and the surface water in which the effluent is released. Compared to other sample sites, hospital sewage was richest in human-associated bacteria and contained the highest relative levels of ARGs. Yet, the abundance of ARGs was comparable in WWTPs with and without hospital wastewater, suggesting that hospitals do not contribute to the spread of ARGs in countries with a functioning sewerage system.
- Downloaded 911 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 26,021
- In microbiology: 1,520
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 70,282
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 87,792
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!