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Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provided many biological insights into coronary artery disease (CAD), but these studies were mainly performed in Europeans. GWAS in diverse populations have the potential to advance our understanding of CAD. Methods and Results: We conducted two GWAS for CAD in the Japanese population, which included 12,494 cases and 28,879 controls, and 2,808 cases and 7,261 controls, respectively. Then, we performed transethnic meta-analysis using the results of the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes meta-analysis with UK Biobank. We identified 3 new loci on chromosome 1q21 (CTSS), 10q26 (WDR11-FGFR2), and 11q22 (RDX-FDX1). Quantitative trait locus analyses suggested the association of CTSS and RDX-FDX1 with atherosclerotic immune cells. Tissue/cell type enrichment analysis showed the involvement of arteries, adrenal glands and fat tissues in the development of CAD. Finally, we performed tissue/cell type enrichment analysis using East Asian-frequent and European-frequent variants according to the risk allele frequencies, and identified significant enrichment of adrenal glands in the East Asian-frequent group while the enrichment of arteries and fat tissues was found in the European-frequent group. These findings indicate biological differences in CAD susceptibility between Japanese and Europeans. Conclusions: We identified 3 new loci for CAD and highlighted the genetic differences between the Japanese and European populations. Moreover, our transethnic analyses showed both shared and unique genetic architectures between the Japanese and Europeans. While most of the underlying genetic bases for CAD are shared, further analyses in diverse populations will be needed to elucidate variations fully.

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