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Gorilla APOBEC3 restricts SIVcpz and influences lentiviral evolution in great ape cross-species transmissions

By Yusuke Nakano, Keisuke Yamamoto, Andrew Soper, Ryuichi Kumata, Hirofumi Aso, Naoko Misawa, Yoriyuki Konno, Izumi Kimura, Shumpei Nagaoka, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Jumpei Ito, Terumasa Ikeda, Yoshio Koyanagi, Reuben Harris, Kei Sato

Posted 04 Jul 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/362079

Restriction factors including APOBEC3 family proteins have the potential prevent cross-species lentivirus transmissions. Such events as well as ensuing pathogenesis require the viral Vif protein to overcome/neutralize/degrade the APOBEC3 enzymes of the new host species. Previous investigations have focused on the molecular interaction between human APOBEC3s and HIV-1 Vif. However, the evolutionary interplay between lentiviruses and great ape (including human, chimpanzee and gorilla) APOBEC3s has not been fully investigated. Here we demonstrate that gorilla APOBEC3G plays a pivotal role in restricting lentiviral transmission from chimpanzee to gorilla. We also reveal that a sole amino acid substitution in Vif is sufficient to overcome the gorilla APOBEC3G-mediated species barrier. Moreover, the antiviral effects of gorilla APOBEC3D and APOBEC3F are considerably weaker than those of human and chimpanzee counterparts, which can result in the skewed evolution of great ape lentiviruses leading to HIV-1.

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