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A reference map of the human proinsulin biosynthetic interaction network

By Duc T Tran, Anita Pottekat, Saiful A Mir, Insook Jang, Salvatore Loguercio, Alexandre Rosa Campos, Reyhaneh Lahmy, Ming Liu, Peter Arvan, William E Balch, Randal J. Kaufman, Pamela Itkin-Ansari

Posted 11 Jul 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/699132

The beta-cell protein synthetic machinery is dedicated to the production of insulin, which plays a critical role in organismal homeostasis. Insulin synthesis requires the proper folding and trafficking of its precursor, proinsulin, yet the precise network of proinsulin protein interactions in the secretory pathway remains poorly defined. In the present study we conducted unbiased profiling of the proinsulin interactome in human islets, utilizing a human proinsulin-specific monoclonal antibody for affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Stringent analysis identified a central node of interactions between human proinsulin and sequential secretory pathway proteins that is remarkably conserved across 3 ethnicities and both genders. Among the most prominent proinsulin interactions was with ER-localized peroxiredoxin-4 (PRDX4). A functional role for PRDX4 in beta-cells was demonstrated by gene silencing that rendered proinsulin susceptible to misfolding, particularly in response to oxidative stress. Conversely, exogenous PRDX4 improved proinsulin folding. Notably, oxidative stress and even high glucose treatment alone induced proinsulin misfolding in human islets and MIN6 cells, and this was accompanied by sulfonylation of PRDX4, a modification known to inactivate peroxiredoxins. This finding prompted PRDX4 analysis in a panel of human islet samples that revealed significantly higher levels of sulfonylated (inactive) PRDX4 in islets from patients with T2D compared to that of healthy individuals. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of elucidating the complete proinsulin interactome in human islets in order to understand critical steps controlling insulin biosynthesis, beta cell function, and T2D.

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