HIV-1 Nef interacts with LMP7 to attenuate immunoproteasome formation and MHC-I antigen presentation
Proteasome is major protein degradation machinery and plays essential roles in diverse biological functions. Upon cytokine inductions, proteasome subunits β1, β2, and β5 are replaced by β1i/LMP2, β2i/MECL-1, and β5i/LMP7, leading to the formation of immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasome-degraded products are loaded onto the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) to regulate immune responses and induce cytotoxic-T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the causal agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1-specific CTLs represent critical immune responses to limit viral replication. HIV-1 negative regulatory factor (Nef) counteracts host immunity, especially the MHC-I/CTL. This study reveals a distinct mechanism by which Nef facilitates immune evasion through attenuating the functions of immunoproteasome and MHC-I. Nef interacts with LMP7 on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to down-regulate the incorporation of LMP7 into immunoproteasome, and thereby attenuating immunoproteasome formation. Moreover, Nef represses immunoproteasome protein degradation function, MHC-I trafficking, and antigen presentation activity.
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