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Identification of type 2 diabetes loci in 433,540 East Asian individuals

By Cassandra N. Spracklen, Momoko Horikoshi, Young Jin Kim, Kuang Lin, Fiona Bragg, Sanghoon Moon, Ken Suzuki, Claudia HT Tam, Yasuharu Tabara, Soo-Heon Kwak, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Jirong Long, Victor JY Lim, Jin-Fang Chai, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Masahiro Nakatochi, Jie Yao, Hyeok Sun Choi, Apoorva K Iyengar, Hannah J Perrin, Sarah M Brotman, Martijn van de Bunt, Anna L Gloyn, Jennifer E Below, Michael Boehnke, Donald W. Bowden, John C Chambers, Anubha Mahajan, Mark I McCarthy, Maggie C.Y. Ng, Lauren E Petty, Weihua Zhang, Andrew P Morris, Linda S Adair, Zheng Bian, Juliana CN Chan, Li-Ching Chang, Miao-Li Chee, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Zhengming Chen, Lee-Ming Chuang, Shufa Du, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Myron Gross, Xiuqing Guo, Yu Guo, Sohee Han, Annie-Green Howard, Wei Huang, Yi-Jen Hung, Mi Yeong Hwang, Chii-Min Hwu, Sahoko Ichihara, Masato Isono, Hye-Mi Jang, Guozhi Jiang, Jost B Jonas, Yoichiro Kamatani, Tomohiro Katsuya, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Katsuhiko Kohara, Myung-Shik Lee, Nannette R Lee, Liming Li, Jianjun Liu, Andrea O Luk, Jun Lv, Yukinori Okada, Mark A Pereira, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Jinxiu Shi, Dong Mun Shin, Wing Yee So, Atsushi Takahashi, Brian Tomlinson, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Rob M van Dam, Yong-Bing Xiang, Ken Yamamoto, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Kyungheon Yoon, Canqing Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Liang Zhang, Wei Zheng, Michiya Igase, Yoon Shin Cho, Jerome I Rotter, Ya-Xing Wang, Wayne HH Sheu, Mitsuhiro Yokota, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien-Yin Wong, Xiao-Ou Shu, Norihiro Kato, Kyong-Soo Park, E-Shyong Tai, Fumihiko Matsuda, Woon-Puay Koh, Ronald CW Ma, Shiro Maeda, Iona Y. Millwood, Juyoung Lee, Takashi Kadowaki, Robin G Walters, Bong-Jo Kim, Karen L Mohlke, Xueling Sim

Posted 28 Jun 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/685172

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >240 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), however most loci have been identified in analyses of European-ancestry individuals. To examine T2D risk in East Asian individuals, we meta-analyzed GWAS data in 77,418 cases and 356,122 controls. In the main analysis, we identified 298 distinct association signals at 178 loci, and across T2D association models with and without consideration of body mass index and sex, we identified 56 loci newly implicated in T2D predisposition. Common variants associated with T2D in both East Asian and European populations exhibited strongly correlated effect sizes. New associations include signals in/near GDAP1 , PTF1A , SIX3, ALDH2, a microRNA cluster, and genes that affect muscle and adipose differentiation. At another locus, eQTLs at two overlapping T2D signals act through two genes, NKX6-3 and ANK1 , in different tissues. Association studies in diverse populations identify additional loci and elucidate disease genes, biology, and pathways. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common metabolic disease primarily caused by insufficient insulin production and/or secretion by the pancreatic β cells and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues[1][1]. Most genetic loci associated with T2D have been identified in populations of European (EUR) ancestry, including a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of nearly 900,000 individuals of European ancestry that identified >240 loci influencing the risk of T2D[2][2]. Differences in allele frequency between ancestries affect the power to detect associations within a population, particularly among variants rare or monomorphic in one population but more frequent in another[3][3],[4][4]. Although smaller than studies in European populations, a recent T2D meta-analysis in almost 200,000 Japanese individuals identified 28 additional loci[4][4]. The relative contributions of different pathways to the pathophysiology of T2D may also differ between ancestry groups. For example, in East Asian (EAS) populations, T2D prevalence is greater than in European populations among people of similar body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference[5][5]. We performed the largest meta-analysis of East Asian individuals to identify new genetic associations and provide insight into T2D pathogenesis. [1]: #ref-1 [2]: #ref-2 [3]: #ref-3 [4]: #ref-4 [5]: #ref-5

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