MR-LDP: a two-sample Mendelian randomization for GWAS summary statistics accounting for linkage disequilibrium and horizontal pleiotropy
The proliferation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has prompted the use of two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) with genetic variants as instrumental variables (IV) for drawing reliable causal relationships between health risk factors and disease outcomes. However, the unique features of GWAS demand that MR methods account for both linkage disequilibrium (LD) and ubiquitously existing horizontal pleiotropy among complex traits, which is the phenomenon wherein a variant affects the outcome through mechanisms other than exclusively through the exposure. Therefore, statistical methods that fail to consider LD and horizontal pleiotropy can lead to biased estimates and false-positive causal relationships. To overcome these limitations, we propose a probabilistic model for MR analysis to identify the casual effects between risk factors and disease outcomes using GWAS summary statistics in the presence of LD and to properly account for horizontal pleiotropy among genetic variants (MR-LDP). MR-LDP utilizes a computationally efficient parameter-expanded variational Bayes expectation-maximization (PX-VBEM) algorithm to estimate the parameter of interest and further calibrates the evidence lower bound (ELBO) for a likelihood ratio test. We then conducted comprehensive simulation studies to demonstrate the advantages of MR-LDP over the existing methods in terms of both type-I error control and point estimates. Moreover, we used two real exposure-outcome pairs (CAD-CAD and Height-Height; CAD for coronary artery disease) to validate the results from MR-LDP compared with alternative methods, showing that our method is more efficient in using all instrumental variants in LD. By further applying MR-LDP to lipid traits and body mass index (BMI) as risk factors for complex diseases, we identified multiple pairs of significant causal relationships, including a protective effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and a positive causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on hemorrhoids.
- Downloaded 1,074 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 23,625
- In genetics: 1,054
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 51,393
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 103,221
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!