Intergenerational transmission of education and ADHD: Effects of parental genotypes
Eveline L. de Zeeuw,
Klaasjan G. Ouwens,
Conor V. Dolan,
Erik A Ehli,
Gareth E. Davies,
Dorret I. Boomsma,
Elsje van Bergen
Posted 19 Jun 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/664128 (published DOI: 10.1007/s10519-020-09992-w)
Posted 19 Jun 2019
It is challenging to study whether children resemble their parents due to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. Here we used a novel design that employs the fact that parents transmit 50% of their alleles to their offspring. The combined effect of these transmitted and non-transmitted alleles on a trait are summarized in a polygenic score (PGS). The non-transmitted PGS can only affect offspring through the environment, via genetically influenced behaviours in the parents, called genetic nurturing. For genotyped mother-father-offspring trios (1,120-2,518 per analysis) we calculated transmitted and non-transmitted PGSs for adult educational attainment (EA) and childhood ADHD and tested if these predicted outcomes in offspring. In adults, both transmitted (R2 = 7.6%) and non-transmitted (R2 = 1.7%) EA PGSs predicted offspring EA, evidencing genetic nurturing. In children around age 12, academic achievement was predicted only by transmitted EA PGSs (R2 = 5.7%), but we did not find genetic nurturing (R2 ~ 0.1%). The ADHD PGSs did not significantly predict academic achievement (R2 ~ 0.6%). ADHD symptoms in children were predicted by transmitted EA PGSs and ADHD PGSs (R2 = 1-2%). Based on these results, we conclude that previously reported associations between parent characteristics and offspring outcomes seem to be mainly a marker of genetic effects shared by parents and children.
- Downloaded 496 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 47,829
- In genomics: 3,825
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 93,471
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 104,664
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!