Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common nasopharyngeal commensal capable of infecting normally sterile anatomical sites, resulting in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Effective vaccines preventing IPD exist, but each of the antigens they contain typically induces protective immunity against only one of the approximately 100 pneumococcal serotypes, which are differentiated by immunogenically-distinct polysaccharide capsules. Serotypes vary in their propensity to cause IPD, quantified as their invasiveness. Vaccines are designed to include serotypes commonly isolated from IPD, but the immunity they induce is sufficiently strong to also eliminate vaccine serotypes from carriage. This enables their replacement by non-vaccine serotypes in the nasopharynx. The emergence of invasive non-vaccine serotypes has undermined some vaccination programmes' benefits. Recent advances in genomics and modeling have enabled forecasting of which non-vaccine serotypes will be successful post-vaccination. Here, we demonstrate that vaccines optimised using this framework can minimise IPD and antibiotic-resistant disease more effectively than existing formulations in the model, through mitigating the consequences of serotype replacement. The simulations also demonstrate that tailoring vaccines to the pre-vaccine bacterial population is likely to have a substantial impact on reducing IPD, highlighting the importance of epidemiological data, genomics and ecological models as tools for vaccine design and evaluation.
- Downloaded 535 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 70,286
- In evolutionary biology: 3,440
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 139,045
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 52,042
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!