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Distinct gut metagenomics and metaproteomics signatures in prediabetics and treatment-naïve type 2 diabetics

By Huanzi Zhong, Huahui Ren, Yan Lu, Chao Fang, Guixue Hou, Ziyi Yang, Bing Chen, Fangming Yang, Yue Zhao, Zhun Shi, Baojin Zhou, Jiegen Wu, Hua Zou, Jin Zi, Jiayu Chen, Xiao Bao, Yihe Hu, Yan Gao, Jun Zhang, Xun Xu, Yong Hou, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Siqi Liu, Huijue Jia, Lise Madsen, Susanne Brix, Fang Liu, Karsten Kristiansen, Junhua LI

Posted 11 Jun 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/666263 (published DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.048)

Background The gut microbiota plays important roles in modulating host metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in the gut microbiome of T2D and prediabetic individuals compared to healthy individuals, with distinct disease-related microbial profiles being reported in groups of different age and ethnicity. However, confounding factors such as anti-diabetic medication hamper identification of the gut microbial changes in disease development. Method We used a combination of in-depth metagenomics and metaproteomics analyses of faecal samples from treatment-naïve type 2 diabetic (TN-T2D, n=77), pre-diabetic (Pre-DM, n=80), and normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=97) individuals to investigate compositional and functional changes of the gut microbiota and the faecal content of microbial and host proteins in Pre-DM and treatment-naïve T2D individuals to elucidate possible host-microbial interplays characterising different disease stages. Findings We observed distinct differences characterizing the gut microbiota of these three groups and validated several key features in an independent TN-T2D cohort. We also demonstrated that the content of several human antimicrobial peptides and pancreatic enzymes differed in faecal samples between three groups, such as reduced faecal level of antimicrobial peptides and pancreatic enzymes in TN-T2D. Interpretation Our findings suggest a complex, disease stage-dependent interplay between the gut microbiota and the host and emphasize the value of metaproteomics to gain further insight into interplays between the gut microbiota and the host. Funding National Key Research and Development Program of China, No. 2017YFC0909703, Shenzhen Municipal Government of China, No. JCYJ20170817145809215, and National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 31601073.

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