Chd1 regulates repair of promoter-proximal DNA breaks to sustain hypertranscription in embryonic stem cells
Stem and progenitor cells undergo a global elevation of nascent transcription, or hypertranscription, during key developmental transitions involving rapid cell proliferation. The chromatin remodeler Chd1 binds to genes transcribed by RNA Polymerase (Pol) I and II and is required for hypertranscription in embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro and the early post- implantation epiblast in vivo. Biochemically, Chd1 has been shown to facilitate transcription at least in part by removing nucleosomal barriers to elongation, but its mechanism of action in stem cells remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel role for Chd1 in the repair of promoter- proximal endogenous double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in ES cells. An unbiased proteomics approach revealed that Chd1 interacts with several DNA repair factors including Atm, Parp1, Kap1 and Topoisomerase 2b. We show that wild-type ES cells display high levels of phosphorylated H2A.X and Kap1 at chromatin, notably at rDNA in the nucleolus, in a Chd1-dependent manner. Loss of Chd1 leads to an extensive accumulation of DSBs at Chd1- bound Pol II-transcribed genes and rDNA. Genes prone to DNA breaks in Chd1 KO ES cells tend to be longer genes with GC-rich promoters, a more labile nucleosomal structure and roles in chromatin regulation, transcription and signaling. These results reveal a vulnerability of hypertranscribing stem cells to endogenous DNA breaks, with important implications for developmental and cancer biology.
- Downloaded 561 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 28,236 out of 92,758
- In molecular biology: 904 out of 3,175
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 29,387 out of 92,758
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 56,908 out of 92,758
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!