Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 67,038 bioRxiv papers from 295,074 authors.
During development, oligodendrocytes contact and wrap neuronal axons with myelin. Similar to neurons and synapses, excess myelin sheaths are produced and selectively eliminated. However, unlike these other structures, almost nothing is known about myelin sheath elimination. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, refine the developing CNS by engulfing surplus neurons and synapses. To determine if microglia also prune myelin sheaths, we used zebrafish to visualize and manipulate interactions between microglia, oligodendrocytes, and neurons during development. We found that microglia closely associate with oligodendrocytes and specifically phagocytose myelin sheaths. Silencing neuronal activity with botulinum toxin (BoNT/B) increased myelin engulfment by microglia. Furthermore, oligodendrocytes maintained excessive myelin sheaths following microglial ablation. Our work reveals a neuronal activity-regulated role for microglia in regulating myelination by oligodendrocytes.
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