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A Clostridia-rich microbiota contributes to increased excretion of bile acids in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

By Ling Zhao, Wei Yang, Yang Chen, Fengjie Huang, Lin Lu, Chengyuan Lin, Tao Huang, Ziwan Ning, Lixiang Zhai, Linda LD Zhong, Waiching Lam, Zhen Yang, Xuan Zhang, Chungwah Cheng, Lijuan Han, Qinwei Qiu, Xiaoxiao Shang, Runyue Huang, Zhenxing Ren, Dongfeng Chen, Silong Sun, Hani El-Nezami, Aiping Lu, Xiaodong Fang, Wei Jia, Zhaoxiang Bian

Posted 12 May 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/630350

Objective: An excess of fecal bile acids (BAs) is thought to be one of the mechanisms for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). However, the factors causing excessive BA excretion remains unclear. Given the importance of gut microbiota in BA metabolism, we hypothesized that gut dysbiosis might contribute to excessive BA excretion in IBS-D. Design: Metabolomic and metagenomic analyses were performed of specimens from 290 IBS-D patients and 89 healthy volunteers. By transplanting human microbiota and manipulating specific microbiome species in mice, the effects of microbiota on host BA metabolism were assessed at metabolic, genetic and protein levels. Effects of individual and mixed BAs on enterohepatic feedback pathways were also tested in vitro and in vivo. Results: Total fecal BAs were excessively excreted in 24.5% of IBS-D patients. Their fecal metagenomes showed increased abundances of Clostridia and BA-transforming genes (hdhA and bais). The increases of Clostridia bacteria (e.g. C. scindens) were positively associated with the levels of fecal BAs and serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), while being negatively correlated with serum fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). Both Clostridia-rich human microbiota and C. scindens enhanced levels of serum C4 and hepatic conjugated BAs in mice recipients and reduced ileal FGF19 expression. Inhibition of Clostridium species by vancomycin yielded opposite findings. Clostridia-derived BAs (e.g. conjugated and free ursodeoxycholic acid) significantly suppressed intestinal FGF19 expression. Conclusion: The Clostridia-rich microbiota contributes to excessive BA excretion in IBS-D patients. This study provided the basis for more precise clinical diagnosis and management for IBS-D.

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