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The human proteome is a major source of therapeutic targets. Recent genetic association analyses of the plasma proteome enable systematic evaluation of the causal consequences of variation in plasma protein levels. Here, we estimated the effects of 1002 proteins on 225 phenotypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization. Of 413 associations supported by evidence from MR, 130 (31.5%) were not supported by results of colocalization analyses, suggesting that genetic confounding due to linkage disequilibrium (LD) is widespread in naive phenome-wide association studies of proteins. Combining MR and colocalization evidence in cis-only analyses, we identified 111 putatively causal effects between 65 proteins and 52 disease-related phenotypes ([www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/][1]). Evaluation of data from historic drug development programmes showed that target-indication pairs with MR and colocalization support were more likely to be approved, evidencing the value of our approach in identifying and prioritising potential therapeutic targets. [1]: http://www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/

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