Tumor-specific neoantigens play the main role for developing personal vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. We propose, for the first time, a personalized de novo sequencing workflow to identify HLA-I and HLA-II neoantigens directly and solely from mass spectrometry data. Our workflow trains a personal deep learning model on the immunopeptidome of an individual patient and then uses it to predict mutated neoantigens of that patient. This personalized learning and mass spectrometry-based approach enables comprehensive and accurate identification of neoantigens. We applied the workflow to datasets of five melanoma patients and substantially improved the accuracy and identification rate of de novo HLA peptides by 14.3% and 38.9%, respectively. This subsequently led to the identification of 10,440 HLA-I and 1,585 HLA-II new peptides that were not presented in existing databases. Most importantly, our workflow successfully discovered 17 neoantigens of both HLA-I and HLA-II, including those with validated T cell responses and those novel neoantigens that had not been reported in previous studies.
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