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Retina is a crucial tissue for the capturing and processing of light stimulus. Characterization of the retina at single cell level is essential for the understanding of its biological functions. A variety of abnormalities in terms of morphology and function were reported in T21 retina. To evaluate the effects of chromosome aneuploidy on retina development, we characterized single cell transcriptional profiles of a T21 fetus and performed comprehensive bioinformatic analyses. Our data revealed the diversity and heterogeneity of cellular compositions in T21 retina. In total, we identified seven major cell types, and detected several subtypes within each cell type, followed by the detection of corresponding molecular markers including previously reported ones and a series of novel markers. Our analyses identified extensive communication networks between distinct cellular types, among which a few ligand-receptor interactions were associated with the development of retina and immunoregulatory interactions. Taken together, our data provided the first single cell transcriptome profile for human T21 retina which facilitates our understanding on the dosage effects of chromosome 21 on the development of retina.

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