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Understanding complex tissues requires single-cell deconstruction of gene regulation with precision and scale. Here we present a massively parallel droplet-based platform for mapping transposase-accessible chromatin in tens of thousands of single cells per sample (scATAC-seq). We obtain and analyze chromatin profiles of over 200,000 single cells in two primary human systems. In blood, scATAC-seq allows marker-free identification of cell type-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements, mapping of disease-associated enhancer activity, and reconstruction of trajectories of differentiation from progenitors to diverse and rare immune cell types. In basal cell carcinoma, scATAC-seq reveals regulatory landscapes of malignant, stromal, and immune cell types in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, scATAC-seq of serial tumor biopsies before and after PD-1 blockade allows identification of chromatin regulators and differentiation trajectories of therapy-responsive intratumoral T cell subsets, revealing a shared regulatory program driving CD8+ T cell exhaustion and CD4+ T follicular helper cell development. We anticipate that droplet-based single-cell chromatin accessibility will provide a broadly applicable means of identifying regulatory factors and elements that underlie cell type and function.

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