Streptococcus iniae is a pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria that impacted high mortality to many fish species, as well as capable of causing serious disease to humans. Alanine racemase (Alr, EC 22.214.171.124) is a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the racemization of L-alanine and D-alanine. In this study, we purified alanine racemase from the pathogenic strain of S. iniae, determined its biochemical characteristics and inhibitors. The alr gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1107 bp, encoding a protein of 369 amino acids, which has a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The optimal enzyme activity occurred at 35 °C and a pH of 9.5. The enzyme belongs to the PLP dependent enzymes family and is highly specific to L-alanine. S.iniae Alr can be inhibited by some metal ions, hydroxylamine and dithiothreitol (DTT). The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of the enzyme were 33.11 mM, 2426 units/mg for L-alanine and 14.36 mM, 963.6 units/mg for D-alanine. Finally, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values and antibiotic activity of two alanine racemase inhibitors, were determined and found to be effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria employed in this study. The important role of alanine racemase as a target of developing new antibiotics against S. iniae highlighted the usefulness of the enzyme for new antibiotics discovery.
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