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Structure and autoregulation of a P4-ATPase lipid flippase

By Milena Timcenko, Joseph Lyons, Dovile Januliene, Jakob Ulstrup, Thibaud Dieudonne, Cedric Montigny, Miriam Rose Ash, Jesper Lykkegaard Karlsen, Thomas Boesen, Werner Kühlbrandt, Guillaume Lenoir, Arne Möller, Poul Nissen

Posted 12 Apr 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/606061 (published DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1344-7)

P4-ATPases are lipid flippases that drive active transport of phospholipids from the exoplasmic or lumenal to the cytosolic leaflets of eukaryotic membranes to maintain their asymmetric lipid composition. The molecular architecture of P4-ATPases and how they work in lipid recognition and transport has remained elusive. Using cryo-electron microscopy we have determined the structures of a P4-ATPase, specifically of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Drs2p-Cdc50p, which is a phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine specific lipid flippase. Drs2p-Cdc50p is autohihibited by the Drs2p C-terminal tail and activated by phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate (PI4P). We present three structures representing an autoinhibited, an intermediate, and a fully activated state. The analysis highlights specific features of P4-ATPases and reveals sites of auto-inhibition and PI4P-dependent activation. We observe the opening of a putative flippase pathway engaging conserved residues Ile508 of transmembrane segment 4 and Lys1018 and polar residues of transmembrane segment 5 in the centre of the lipid bilayer.

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