Objectives Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children caused by intestinal virus and an important cause of child death. Early identification of critical HFMD and timely intervention are the key to reduce mortality. However, there is no available unified critical HFMD screening standard. This study aimed to explore the predictive evaluation of HFMD with critical illness scoring systems. Methods A total of 31 patients with mild HFMD, 30 with severe HFMD, and 25 with critical HFMD were included. The platelet index in age-adapted sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) was re-assigned to constitute the SOFA for HFMD (H-SOFA). The results of age-adapted SOFA, quick SOFA (qSOFA), and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction score-2 (PELOD-2), pediatric multiple organ dysfunction score (P-MODS), pediatric critical illness score (PCIS), H-SOFA of the three groups were compared. Results Significant differences in the following parameters were found between severe group and critical group: enterovirus 71 positive, heart rate, respiration, vomiting, cold sweat, moist rales, disturbance in consciousness, platelet, and blood glucose (P<0.05), as well as all critical illness scoring data (P<0.001). age-adapted SOFA, qSOFA, and PELOD-2, P-MODS, H-SOFA were positively correlated with critical HFMD (odds ratio (OR): 3.213, 8.66, 2.64, 2.56, and 4.297 respectively; P<0.01), with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.938, 0.823, 0.848, 0.910, and 0.956, respectively. PCIS was negatively correlated with critical HFMD (OR=0.76, P<0.001), with an AUC value of 0.865. Conclusion Increase in platelet count was related to the severity of HFMD. Age-adapted SOFA, qSOFA, and PELOD-2, P-MODS, PCIS, H-SOFA had high predictive value on critical HFMD, with H-SOFA being the highest.
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