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Genomic analysis reveals selection signatures of Yucatan miniature pig on its X chromosome during domestication

By Wei Zhang, Yuanlang Wang, Min Yang, Xudong Wu, Xiaodong Zhang, Yueyun Ding, Zongjun Yin

Posted 04 Apr 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/596387

Yucatan miniature pig (YMP), a naturally small breed, has been domesticated in the hot and arid Yucatan Peninsula for a long time. However, its selection signatures on the X chromosome remain poorly understood. In this study, we focused on elucidating the selection signatures of YMP on the X chromosome during its domestication and breeding, using the whole-genome sequencing data. We performed population admixture analyses to determine its genetic relationships with other domesticated breeds and wild boars. Subsequently, we used two approaches, the fixation index (Fst) and π ratios, to identify the selection signatures with 100 kb windows sliding in 10 kb steps. As a result, we found that the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene was related with hypoplasia or absence of hair and sweat glands. This could uncover the relative lack of odor in YMP and the presence of hypoplasia or absence of hair in pigs. Furthermore, we found several genes under selection in other animals. A bioinformatics analysis of the genes in selection regions showed that they were associated with growth, lipid metabolism, reproduction, and immune system. Our findings will lead to a better understanding of the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics of YMP and offer a plausible method for their utilization as an animal model for hair and odor disease research.

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