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Background Current treatments for depression are limited by suboptimal efficacy, delayed response, and frequent side effects. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation treatment that is FDA-approved for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Recent methodological advancements suggest iTBS could be improved through 1) treating with multiple sessions per day at optimally-spaced intervals, 2) applying a higher overall pulse-dose of stimulation and 3) precision targeting of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) circuit. We examined the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of an accelerated, high-dose, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI)-guided iTBS protocol for TRD termed ‘Stanford Accelerated Intelligent Neuromodulation Therapy (SAINT)’. Methods Twenty-one participants with TRD received open-label SAINT. FcMRI was used to individually target the region of L-DLPFC most anticorrelated with sgACC. Fifty iTBS sessions (1800 pulses per session, 50-minute inter-session interval) were delivered as 10 daily sessions over 5 consecutive days at 90% resting motor threshold (adjusted for cortical depth). Neuropsychological testing was conducted before and after SAINT. Results Nineteen of 21 participants (90.48%) met criteria for remission (≤10 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) immediately after SAINT. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated no negative cognitive side-effects. There were no seizures or other severe adverse events. Discussion Our accelerated, high-dose, iTBS protocol with fcMRI-guided targeting (SAINT) was well tolerated and safe. Efficacy was strikingly high, especially for this treatment-resistant population. Double-blinded sham-controlled trials are required to confirm the high remission rate found in this initial study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT03240692][1] [1]: /lookup/external-ref?link_type=CLINTRIALGOV&access_num=NCT03240692&atom=%2Fbiorxiv%2Fearly%2F2019%2F08%2F06%2F581280.atom

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