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Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella Typhimurium and its monophasic variants responsible for invasive endemic infections in Colombia

By Yan Li, Caisey V. Pulford, Paula Díaz, Blanca M. Perez-Sepulveda, Carolina Duarte, Alexander V Predeus, Magdalena Wiesner, Darren Heavens, Ross Low, Christian Schudoma, James Lipscombe, Angeline Montaño, Neil Hall, Jaime Moreno, Jay C. D. Hinton

Posted 25 Mar 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/588608

Salmonellosis is an endemic human infection, associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks throughout Colombia. Typhimurium is the most common Colombian serovar of Salmonella enterica, responsible for 32.5% of the Salmonella infections. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is being used increasingly in Europe and the USA to study the epidemiology of Salmonella, but there has not yet been a WGS-based analysis of Salmonella associated with bloodstream infection in Colombia. Here, we analysed 209 genome sequences of Colombian S. Typhimurium and monophasic S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from Colombia from 1999 to 2017. We used a core genome-based maximum likelihood tree to define seven distinct clusters which were predominantly Sequence Type (ST) 19 isolates. We also identified the first ST313 and monophasic ST34 isolates to be reported in Colombia. The history of each cluster was reconstructed with a Bayesian tree to reveal a timeline of evolution. Cluster 7 was closely related to European multidrug-resistant (MDR) DT104. Cluster 4 became the dominant variant of Salmonella in 2016, and resistance to nalidixic acid was associated with a plasmid-encoded qnrB19 gene. Our findings suggest multiple transfers of S. Typhimurium between Europe and Colombia.

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