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More than a decade of gut microbiome studies have a common goal for human health. As most of the disease studies sample the elderly or the middle-aged, a reference cohort for young individuals has been lacking. It is also not clear what other omics data need to be measured to better understand the gut microbiome. Here we present high-depth metagenomic shotgun sequencing data for the fecal microbiome together with other omics data in a cohort of 2,183 adults, and observe a number of vitamins, hormones, amino acids and trace elements to correlate with the gut microbiome and cluster with T cell receptors. Associations with physical fitness, sleeping habits and dairy consumption are identified in this large multi-omic cohort. Many of the associations are validated in an additional cohort of 1,404 individuals. Our comprehensive data are poised to advise future study designs to better understand and manage our gut microbiome both in population and in mechanistic investigations.

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