High-throughput Multimodal Automated Phenotyping (MAP) with Application to PheWAS
Katherine P. Liao,
Tianrun A. Cai,
Jennifer E. Huffman,
Shawn N Murphy,
Christopher J. O’Donnell,
J. Michael Gaziano,
Isaac S. Kohane,
with the VA Million Veteran Program
Posted 23 Mar 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/587436 (published DOI: 10.1093/jamia/ocz066)
Posted 23 Mar 2019
Objective: Electronic health records (EHR) linked with biorepositories are a powerful platform for translational studies. A major bottleneck exists in the ability to phenotype patients accurately and efficiently. The objective of this study was to develop an automated high-throughput phenotyping method integrating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and narrative data extracted using natural language processing (NLP). Method: We developed a mapping method for automatically identifying relevant ICD and NLP concepts for a specific phenotype leveraging the UMLS. Aggregated ICD and NLP counts along with healthcare utilization were jointly analyzed by fitting an ensemble of latent mixture models. The MAP algorithm yields a predicted probability of phenotype for each patient and a threshold for classifying subjects with phenotype yes/no. The algorithm was validated using labeled data for 16 phenotypes from a biorepository and further tested in an independent cohort PheWAS for two SNPs with known associations. Results: The MAP algorithm achieved higher or similar AUC and F-scores compared to the ICD code across all 16 phenotypes. The features assembled via the automated approach had comparable accuracy to those assembled via manual curation (AUCMAP 0.943, AUCmanual 0.941). The PheWAS results suggest that the MAP approach detected previously validated associations with higher power when compared to the standard PheWAS method based on ICD codes. Conclusion: The MAP approach increased the accuracy of phenotype definition while maintaining scalability, facilitating use in studies requiring large scale phenotyping, such as PheWAS.
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