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Control of the Endo-Lysosome Homeostasis by the Paracaspase MALT1 regulates Glioma Cell Survival

By Kathryn A Jacobs, Gwennan André-Grégoire, Clément Maghe, Ying Li, An Thys, Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Kilian Trillet, Tiphaine Douanne, Jean-Sébastien Frénel, Nicolas Bidere, Julie Gavard

Posted 23 Mar 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/582221 (published DOI: 10.15252/embj.2019102030)

Glioblastoma is one of the most lethal forms of adult cancer with a median survival of around 15 months. A potential treatment strategy involves targeting glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC), which constitute a cell autonomous reservoir of aberrant cells able to initiate, maintain, and repopulate the tumor mass. Here, we report that the expression of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue l (MALT1), a protease previously linked to antigen receptor-mediated NF-κB activation and B-cell lymphoma survival, inversely correlates with patient probability of survival. The knockdown of MALT1 largely impaired the expansion of patient-derived stem-like cells in vitro, and this could be recapitulated with pharmacological inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo. Blocking MALT1 protease activity increases the endo-lysosome abundance, impaired autophagic flux, and culminates in lysosomal-mediated death, concomitantly with mTOR inactivation and dispersion from lysosomes. These findings place MALT1 as a new druggable target involved in glioblastoma and unveil ways to modulate the homeostasis of endo-lysosomes.

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