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Alterations of redox and iron metabolism accompany development of HIV latency.

By IL Shytaj, B Lucic, M Forcato, JM Billingsley, S Bosinger, M Stanic, F Gregoretti, L Antonelli, G Oliva, CK Frese, A Trifunovic, B Galy, C Eibl, G Silvestri, S Bicciato, A Savarino, Marina Lusic

Posted 13 Feb 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/549014 (published DOI: 10.15252/embj.2019102209)

Metabolic alterations, such as oxidative stress, are hallmarks of HIV-1 infection. However, their influence on the development of viral latency, and thus on HIV-1 persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART), have just begun to be explored. We analyzed omics profiles of in-vitro and in-vivo models of infection by HIV-1 and its simian homolog SIVmac. We found that cells survive retroviral replication by upregulating antioxidant pathways and intertwined iron import pathways. These changes are associated with remodeling of the redox sensitive promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML NBs), an important constituent of nuclear architecture and a marker of HIV-1 latency. We found that PML is depleted in productively infected cells and restored by ART. Moreover, we identified intracellular iron as a key link between oxidative stress and PML depletion, thus supporting iron metabolism modulators as pharmacological tools to impair latency establishment.

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