A molecular phylogeny of Schizothoracinae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) based on 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes and RAG1 gene analysis
The ever-increasing interest in the investigation of origin and speciation of schizothoracine fishes can be dated to 20th century. However, molecular phylogeny of Schizothoracinae and their phylogenetic relationships, as well as the divergence times still remain controversial. In this study, two DNA sets consisting of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes from 254 individuals and RAG1 gene from 106 individuals were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and calculate the divergence times among the subfamily schizothoracinae. Our results indicated that both of the data sets supported a non-monophyletic relationship due to involving of species of Barbinae. However, the phylogenetic relationships based on mtDNA genes were more reliable than that inferred from RAG1 gene. The highly specialized grade formed a monophyletic group, together with Ptychobarbus as a sister group of Diptychus and Gymnodiptychus, which was belonging to specialized grade, indicating that Ptychobarbus may be transition species to involve to highly specialized schizothoracianae. In addition, the primitive grade clustered with Percocypris pingi, a species of Barbinae. Based on mtDNA gene, the speciation time of Schizothoracinae was 66 Ma, and the divergence time of the primitive grade and Percocypris pingi was 64 Ma. The speciation times of the three grades Schizothoracinae were 57 Ma, 51 Ma and 43 Ma, respectively; and the divergence time of specialized and highly specialized grade was 46 Ma. The divergence times of three grades were not consistent with the three stages of uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is older than the times. Keywords: Schizothoracinae, protein-coding mtDNA, RAG1, phylogeny, divergence
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