Human and mouse iPSC-derived astrocyte subtypes reveal vulnerability in Vanishing White Matter
Prisca S. Leferink,
Anne E.J. Hillen,
Marjo S. van der Knaap,
Vivi M. Heine
Posted 17 Jan 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/523233
Posted 17 Jan 2019
Astrocytes gained attention as important players in neurological disease, including a number of leukodystrophies. Several studies explored the generation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes for drug screening and regenerative studies. Developing robust models of patient induced pluripotent stem cells is challenged by high variability due to diverse genetic backgrounds and long-term culture procedures. While human models are of special interest, mouse-based models have the advantage that for them these issues are less pronounced. Here we present astrocyte differentiation protocols for both human and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells to specifically induce grey and white matter astrocytes. Both subtypes expressed astrocyte-associated markers, had typical astrocyte morphologies, and gave a reactive response to stress. Importantly, the grey and white matter-like astrocytes differed in size, complexity of processes, and expression profile, conform primary grey and white matter astrocytes. The newly presented mouse and human stem cell-based models for the leukodystrophy Vanishing White Matter replicated earlier findings, such as increased proliferation, decreased OPC maturation and modulation by hyaluronidase. We studied intrinsic astrocyte subtype vulnerability in Vanishing White Matter in both human and mouse cells. Oligodendrocyte maturation was specifically inhibited in cultures with Vanishing White Matter white matter-like astrocytes. By performing RNA sequencing, we found more differentially regulated genes in the white than in the grey matter-like astrocytes. Human and mouse astrocytes showed the same affected pathways, although human white matter-like astrocytes presented human-specific disease mechanisms involved in Vanishing White Matter. Using both human and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells, our study presents protocols to generate white and grey matter-like astrocytes, and shows astrocyte subtype-specific defects in Vanishing White Matter. While mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-based cultures may be less suitable to mimic human astrocyte subtype- or patient-specific changes, they might more robustly represent disease mutation-related cellular phenotypes as the cells are derived from inbred mice and the protocols are faster. The presented models give new tools to generate astrocyte subtypes for in vitro disease modeling and in vivo regenerative applications.
- Downloaded 921 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 13,960 out of 94,912
- In neuroscience: 2,226 out of 16,862
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 21,549 out of 94,912
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 16,660 out of 94,912
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!