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Comparative Population Genomics of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Reveals Its Cultivation and Breeding History in China

By Haofeng Chen, Chengzhi Jiao, Ying Wang, Yuange Wang, Caihuan Tian, Haopeng Yu, Jing Wang, Xiangfeng Wang, Fei Lu, Xiangdong Fu, Yongbiao Xue, Wenkai Jiang, Hongqing Ling, Hongfeng Lu, Yuling Jiao

Posted 14 Jan 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/519587

The evolution of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is distinctive in that domestication, natural hybridization, and allopolyploid speciation have all had significant effects on the diversification of its genome. Wheat was spread around the world by humans and has been cultivated in China for ~4,600 years. Here, we report a comprehensive assessment of the evolution of wheat based on the genome-wide resequencing of 120 representative landraces and elite wheat accessions from China and other representative regions. We found substantially higher genetic diversity in the A and B subgenomes than in the D subgenome. Notably, the A and B subgenomes of the modern Chinese elite cultivars were mainly derived from European landraces, while Chinese landraces had a greater contribution to their D subgenomes. The duplicated copies of homoeologous genes from the A, B, and D subgenomes were commonly found to be under different levels of selection. Our genome-wide assessment of the genetic changes associated with wheat breeding in China provides new strategies and practical targets for future breeding.

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