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Disease heterogeneity of immune gene expression patterns of luminal breast cancer (BC) has not been well studied. We performed immune gene expression profiling of tumor and adjacent normal tissue in 92 Asian luminal BC patients and identified three distinct immune subtypes. Tumors in one subtype exhibited signs of T-cell activation, lower ESR1/ESR2 expression ratio and higher expression of immune checkpoint genes, nonsynonymous mutation burden, APOBEC-signature mutations, and increasing body mass index compared to other luminal tumors. Tumors in a second subtype were characterized by increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and enrichment for TP53 somatic mutations. The presence of three immune subtypes within luminal BC was replicated in cases drawn from The Cancer Genome Atlas and a Korean breast cancer study. Our findings suggest that immune gene expression and associated genomic features could be useful to further stratify luminal BC beyond the current luminal A/B classification.

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