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Purpose: Homeostasis Model Assessment of β-cell function and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-B/-IR) indices are informative about the pathophysiological processes underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D). Data on both fasting glucose and insulin levels are required to calculate HOMA-B/-IR, leading to underpowered Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) of these traits. Methods: We overcame such power loss issues by implementing Genome-Wide Inferred Statistics (GWIS) approach and subsequent dense genome-wide imputation of HOMA-B/-IR summary statistics with SS-imp to 1000 Genomes project variant density, reaching an analytical sample size of 75,240 European individuals without diabetes. We dissected mechanistic heterogeneity of glycaemic trait/T2D loci effects on HOMA-B/-IR and their relationships with 36 inflammatory and cardiometabolic phenotypes. Results: We identified one/three novel HOMA-B (FOXA2)/HOMA-IR (LYPLAL1, PER4, PPP1R3B) loci. We detected novel strong genetic correlations between HOMA-IR/-B and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, rg=0.92/0.78, P=2.13×10-4/2.54×10-3). HOMA-IR/-B were also correlated with C-Reactive Protein (rg=0.33/0.28, P=4.67×10-3/3.65×10-3). HOMA-IR was additionally correlated with T2D (rg=0.56, P=2.31×10-9), glycated haemoglobin (rg=0.28, P=0.024) and adiponectin (rg=-0.30, P=0.012). Conclusion: Using innovative GWIS approach for composite phenotypes we report novel evidence for genetic relationships between fasting indices of insulin resistance/beta-cell function and inflammatory markers, providing further support for the role of inflammation in T2D pathogenesis.

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