Background: Crossbreeding is effective for improving performance in poultry and livestock, which is mainly attributed to heterosis. For pork production, a classic three-way crossbreeding system of Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) is widely used to produce terminal crossbred pigs with stable and prominent performance. Nonetheless, studies on the transmission of genetic information and gene expression pattern of DLY have been limited. Findings: We analyzed population-scale SNPs based on 30 individuals from these three purebreds and identified 529.93 K SNPs of breed-of-origin of alleles. We also applied whole-genome sequencing of ten individuals from a DLY pig family as well as transcriptome of four representative tissues (adipose, skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) for six DLY individuals. Based on above, we identified a large number of high-confidence ASE genes, among which four ASE genes (KMO, PLIN4, POPDC3 and UGT1A6) were found to be shared over all DLY individuals. Conclusion: We suggest DLY is a more effective strategy of three-way crossbreeding among these three purebreds from genetic aspect. We suppose the numerous breed-of-origin of alleles have close association with improved performance of crossbred individuals. ASE may also play important roles on DLY three-way crossbreeding system. Our findings are valuable for understanding the transmission of genetic information and the gene expression in DLY three-way crossbreeding and may be used to guide breeding and production of pigs in the future.
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