Inhibitory interneurons orchestrate information flow across cortex and are implicated in psychiatric illness. Although classes of interneurons have unique functional properties and spatial distributions throughout the brain, the relative influence of interneuron subtypes on brain function, cortical specialization, and illness risk remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate stereotyped organizational properties of somatostatin and parvalbumin related transcripts within human and non-human primates. Interneuron spatial distributions recapitulate cortico-striato-thalamic functional networks and track regional differences in functional MRI signal amplitude. In the general population (n=9,627), parvalbumin-linked genes account for an enriched proportion of genome-wide heritable variance in in-vivo functional MRI signal amplitude. This relationship is spatially dependent, following the topographic organization of parvalbumin expression in independent post-mortem brain tissue. Finally, genetic risk for schizophrenia is enriched among interneuron-linked genes and predictive of cortical signal amplitude in parvalbumin-biased regions. These data indicate that the molecular genetic basis of resting-state brain function across cortex is shaped by the spatial distribution of interneuron-related transcripts and underlies individual differences in risk for schizophrenia.
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