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Psoriasis pathology is driven by the type 3 cytokines IL-17 and Il-22, but little is understood about the dynamics that initiate alterations in tissue homeostasis. Here, we use mouse models, single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), computational inference and cell lineage mapping to show that psoriasis induction reconfigures the functionality of skin-resident ILCs to initiate disease. Tissue-resident ILCs amplified an initial IL-23 trigger and were sufficient, without circulatory ILCs, to drive pathology, indicating that ILC tissue remodeling initiates psoriasis. Skin ILCs expressed type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in steady state, but were epigenetically poised to become ILC3-like cells. ScRNA-seq profiles of ILCs from psoriatic and naive skin of wild type (WT) and Rag1-/- mice form a dense continuum, consistent with this model of fluid ILC states. We inferred biological "topics" underlying these states and their relative importance in each cell with a generative model of latent Dirichlet allocation, showing that ILCs from untreated skin span a spectrum of states, including a naive/quiescent-like state and one expressing the Cd74 and Il13 but little Il5. Upon disease induction, this spectrum shifts, giving rise to a greater proportion of classical Il5- and Il13-expressing "ILC2s" and a new, mixed ILC2/ILC3-like subset, expressing Il13, Il17, and Il22. Using these key topics, we related the cells through transitions, revealing a quiescence-ILC2-ILC3s state trajectory. We demonstrated this plasticity in vivo, combining an IL-5 fate mouse with IL-17A and IL-22 reporters, validating the transition of IL-5-producing ILC2s to IL-22- and IL-17A-producing cells during disease initiation. Thus, steady-state skin ILCs are actively repressed and cued for a plastic, type 2 response, which, upon induction, morphs into a type 3 response that drives psoriasis. This suggests a general model where specific immune activities are primed in healthy tissue, dynamically adapt to provocations, and left unchecked, drive pathological remodeling.

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