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Characterization of intact proviruses in blood and lymph node from HIV-infected individuals undergoing analytical treatment interruption

By Line K. Vibholm, Julio C.C. Lorenzi, Joy A. Pai, Yehuda Z. Cohen, Thiago Y. Oliveira, John P. Barton, Marco Garcia Noceda, Ching-Lan Lu, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Perla M. Del Rio Estrada, Gustavo Reyes Teran, Martin Tolstrup, Paul W. Denton, Tine Damsgaard, Ole S. S√łgaard, Michel C Nussenzweig

Posted 02 Nov 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/456020 (published DOI: 10.1128/jvi.01920-18)

The role of lymphoid tissue as a potential source of HIV-1 rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy is uncertain. To address this issue, we compared the latent viruses obtained from CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes to viruses emerging during treatment interruption. Latent viruses were characterized by sequencing near full-length (NFL) proviral DNA, and env from viral outgrowth cultures (VOAs). 5 HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were studied, 4 of whom participated in a clinical trial that included an analytical treatment interruption. Intact or replication competent clonal sequences from blood and lymph node overlapped. In contrast, there was no overlap between 205 latent reservoir and 125 rebound sequences in the 4 individuals who underwent treatment interruption. However, rebound viruses could be accounted for by recombination. The data suggest that CD4+ T cells carrying latent viruses circulate between blood and lymphoid tissues in individuals on ART and support the idea that recombination may play a role in the emergence of rebound viremia. Clinical Trial Registration ID #NCT02443935.

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