Fecal microbiota transplantation brings about bacterial strain displacement in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is thought to have the potential to correct dysbiosis of gut microbiota, has recently been used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To elucidate the extent and principles of microbiota engraftment in IBD patients after FMT treatment, we conducted an interventional prospective cohort study. The cohort included two categories of patients: (1) patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease (CD) (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≥ 7, n = 11, and (2) patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (Montreal classification, S2 and S3, n = 4). All patients were treated with a single FMT (via mid-gut, from healthy donors) and follow-up visits were performed at baseline, 3 days, one week, and one month after FMT (missing time points included). At each follow-up time point, fecal samples of the participants were collected along with their clinical metadata. For comparative analysis, 10 fecal samples from 10 healthy people were included to represent the diversity level of normal gut microbiota. Additionally, the metagenomic data of 25 fecal samples from 5 individuals with metabolic syndrome who underwent autologous FMT treatment were downloaded from a previous published paper to represent natural microbiota shifts during FMT. All fecal samples underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that 3 days after FMT, 11 out of 15 recipients were in remission (3 out of 4 UC recipients; 8 out of 11 CD recipients). Generally, bacterial colonization was observed to be lower in CD recipients than in UC recipients at both species and strain levels. Furthermore, across species, different strains displayed disease-specific displacement advantages under two-disease status. Finally, most post-FMT species (> 80%) could be properly predicted (AUC > 85%) using a random forest classification model, with the gut microbiota composition and clinical parameters of pre-FMT recipients acting as the most contributive factors for prediction accuracy.
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