Structural insight into TRPV5 channel function and modulation
TRPV5 (transient receptor potential vanilloid) is a unique calcium-selective TRP channel that is essential for calcium homeostasis. TRPV5 and its close homologue TRPV6 do not exhibit thermosensitivity or ligand-dependent activation, unlike other TRPV channels, but are constitutively opened at physiological membrane potentials. Here, we report high resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of truncated and full length TRPV5 in lipid nanodisc, as well as a TRPV5 W583A mutant structure and a complex structure of TRPV5 with calmodulin (CaM). These structures highlight and explain functional differences between the thermosensitive and calcium-selective TRPV channels. An extended S1-S2 linker folds on top of the channel that might shield it from modulation by extracellular factors. Resident lipid densities in the homologous vanilloid pocket are different from those previously found in TRPV1, supporting a comparatively more rigid architecture of TRPV5. A ring of tryptophan residues (W583) at the bottom of the pore coordinates a density and mutation of W583 resultes in opening of the lower gate. Moreover, we provide structural insight into the calcium-dependent channel inactivation and propose a flexible stoichiometry for TRPV5 and CaM binding.
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