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PADI2-mediated citrullination is required for efficient oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination

By Ana Mendanha Falcão, Mandy Meijer, Antonella Scaglione, Puneet Rinwa, Eneritz Agirre, Jialiang Liang, Sara C. Larsen, Abeer Heskol, Rebecca Frawley, Michael Klingener, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Alexandre A.S.F. Raposo, Patrik Ernfors, Diogo S. Castro, Michael L. Nielsen, Patrizia Casaccia, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco

Posted 24 Sep 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/425348 (published DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.108)

Citrullination, the deimination of arginine residues into citrulline, has been implicated in the aetiology of several diseases. In multiple sclerosis (MS), citrullination is thought to be a major driver of pathology, through hypercitrullination and destabilization of myelin. As such, inhibition of citrullination has been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for MS. Here, in contrast, we show citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is required for normal oligodendrocyte differentiation, myelination and motor function. We identify several targets for PADI2, including myelin-related proteins and chromatin associated proteins, implicating PADI2 in epigenetic regulation. Accordingly, we observe that PADI2 inhibition and its knockdown affect chromatin accessibility and prevent the upregulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation genes. Moreover, mice lacking PADI2, display motor dysfunction and decreased number of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum. We conclude that citrullination is required for oligodendrocyte lineage progression and myelination and suggest its targeted activation in the oligodendrocyte lineage might be beneficial in the context of remyelination.

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