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Genome-wide selection footprints and deleterious variations in young Asian allotetraploid rapeseed

By Jun Zou, Lingfeng Mao, Jie Qiu, Meng Wang, Zhesi He, Lei Jia, Dongya Wu, Yongji Huang, Meihong Chen, Yifei Shen, Enhui Shen, Ruiyuan Li, Dandan Hu, Kai Wang, Lei Shi, Chuyu Ye, Ian Bancroft, Graham J. King, Jinling Meng, Longjiang Fan

Posted 09 Sep 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/412551 (published DOI: 10.1111/pbi.13115)

Brassica napus (AACC, 2n=38), is an important oilseed crop grown worldwide. However, little is known about the population evolution of this species, the genomic difference between its major genetic clusters, such as European and Asian rapeseed, and impacts of historical large-sale introgression events in this young tetraploid. In this study, we reported the de novo assembly of the genome sequences of an Asian rapeseed (B. napus), Ningyou 7 and its four progenitors and carried out de novo assembly-based comparison, pedigree and population analysis with other available genomic data from diverse European and Asian cultivars. Our results showed that Asian rapeseed originally derived from European rapeseed, but it had subsequently significantly diverged, with rapid genome differentiation after intensive local breeding selection. The first historical introgression of B. rapa dramatically broadened the allelic pool of Asian B. napus, but decreased their deleterious variations. The secondary historical introgression of European rapeseed (canola-quality) has reshaped Asian rapeseed into two groups, accompanied by an increase in genetic load. This study demonstrates distinctive genomic footprints by recent intra- and inter-species introgression events for local adaptation, and provide novel insights for understanding the rapid genome evolution of a young allopolyploid crop.

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