Rxivist logo

Imaging breast cancer using a dual-ligand nanochain particle

By Gil Covarrubias, Anthony Cha, Abdelrahman Rahmy, Morgan Lorkowski, Vindya Perera, Bernadette O. Erokwu, Chris Flask, Pubudu M. Peiris, William P. Schiemann, Efstathios Karathanasis

Posted 07 Sep 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/411728 (published DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204296)

Nanoparticles often only exploit the upregulation of a receptor on cancer cells to enhance intratumoral deposition of therapeutic and imaging agents. However, a single targeting moiety assumes that a tumor is homogenous and static. Tumoral microenvironments are both heterogenous and dynamic, often displaying variable spatial and temporal expression of targetable receptors throughout disease progression. Here, we evaluated the in vivo performance of an iron oxide nanoparticle in terms of targeting and imaging of orthotropic mouse models of aggressive breast tumors. The nanoparticle, a multi-component nanochain, was comprised of 3-5 iron oxide nanoparticles chemically linked in a linear chain. The nanoparticle’s surface was decorated with two types of ligands each targeting two different upregulated biomarkers on the tumor endothelium, P-selectin and fibronectin. The nanochain exhibited improved tumor deposition not only through vascular targeting but also through its elongated structure. A single-ligand nanochain exhibited a ~2.5-fold higher intratumoral deposition than a spherical nanoparticle variant. Furthermore, the dual-ligand nanochain exhibited higher consistency in generating detectable MR signals compared to a single-ligand nanochain. Using a 7T MRI, the dual-ligand nanochains exhibited highly detectable MR signal within 3h after injection in two different animal models of breast cancer.

Download data

  • Downloaded 149 times
  • Download rankings, all-time:
    • Site-wide: 84,710 out of 100,570
    • In bioengineering: 1,873 out of 2,336
  • Year to date:
    • Site-wide: 95,706 out of 100,570
  • Since beginning of last month:
    • Site-wide: 41,081 out of 100,570

Altmetric data

Downloads over time

Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide


Sign up for the Rxivist weekly newsletter! (Click here for more details.)


  • 20 Oct 2020: Support for sorting preprints using Twitter activity has been removed, at least temporarily, until a new source of social media activity data becomes available.
  • 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
  • 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
  • 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
  • 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
  • 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
  • 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
  • 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
  • 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!