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Re-Evaluating One-step Generation of Mice Carrying Conditional Alleles by CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing Technology

By Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Rolen Quadros, John Adams, Pilar Alcaide, Shinya Ayabe, Johnathan Ballard, Surinder K Batra, Marie-Claude Beauchamp, Kathleen A Becker, Guillaume Bernas, David Brough, Francisco Carrillo-Salinas, Ruby Dawson, Victoria DeMambro, Jinke D’Hont, Katharine Dibb, James D Eudy, Lin Gan, Jing Gao, Amy Gonzales, Anyonya Guntur, Huiping Guo, Donald W Harms, Anne Harrington, Kathryn E Hentges, Neil Humphreys, Shiho Imai, Hideshi Ishii, Mizuho Iwama, Eric Jonasch, Michelle Karolak, Bernard Keavney, Nay-Chi Khin, Masamitsu Konno, Yuko Kotani, Yayoi Kunihiro, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Catherine Larochelle, Catherine B Lawrence, Lin Li, Volkhard Lindner, Xian-De Liu, Gloria Lopez-Castejon, Andrew Loudon, Jenna Lowe, Loydie Jerome-Majeweska, Taiji Matsusaka, Hiromi Miura, Yoshiki Miyasaka, Benjamin Morpurgo, Katherine Motyl, Yo-ichi Nabeshima, Koji Nakade, Toshiaki Nakashiba, Kenichi Nakashima, Yuichi Obata, Sanae Ogiwara, Mariette Ouellet, Leif Oxburgh, Sandra Piltz, Ilka Pinz, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, David Ray, Ronald J Redder, Clifford J. Rosen, Nikki Ross, Mark T Ruhe, Larisa Ryzhova, Ane M Salvador, Radislav Sedlacek, Karan Sharma, Chad Smith, Katrien Staes, Lora Starrs, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Tomohiro Tanaka, Andrew Trafford, Yoshihiro Uno, Leen Vanhoutte, Frederique Vanrockeghem, Brandon J Willis, Christian S Wright, Yuko Yamauchi, Xin Yi, Kazuto Yoshimi, Xuesong Zhang, Yu Zhang, Masato Ohtsuka, Satyabrata Das, Daniel J. Garry, Tino Hochepied, Paul Thomas, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Antony D Adamson, Atsushi Yoshiki, Jean-Francois Schmouth, Andrei Golovko, William R. Thompson, KC. Kent Lloyd, Joshua A Wood, Mitra Cowan, Tomoji Mashimo, Seiya Mizuno, Hao Zhu, Petr Kasparek, Lucy Liaw, Joseph M Miano, Gaetan Burgio

Posted 30 Aug 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/393231 (published DOI: 10.1186/s13059-019-1776-2)

CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing technology has considerably facilitated the generation of mouse knockout alleles, relieving many of the cumbersome and time-consuming steps of traditional mouse embryonic stem cell technology. However, the generation of conditional knockout alleles remains an important challenge. An earlier study reported up to 16% efficiency in generating conditional knockout alleles in mice using 2 single guide RNAs (sgRNA) and 2 single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN) (2sgRNA–2ssODN). We re-evaluated this method from a large data set generated from a consortium consisting of 17 transgenic core facilities or laboratories or programs across the world. The dataset constituted 17,887 microinjected or electroporated zygotes and 1,718 live born mice, of which only 15 (0.87%) mice harbored 2 correct LoxP insertions in cis configuration indicating a very low efficiency of the method. To determine the factors required to successfully generate conditional alleles using the 2sgRNA–2ssODN approach, we performed a generalized linear regression model. We show that factors such as the concentration of the sgRNA, Cas9 protein or the distance between the placement of LoxP insertions were not predictive for the success of this technique. The major predictor affecting the method's success was the probability of simultaneously inserting intact proximal and distal LoxP sequences, without the loss of the DNA segment between the two sgRNA cleavage sites. Our analysis of a large data set indicates that the 2sgRNA–2ssODN method generates a large number of undesired alleles (>99%), and a very small number of desired alleles (<1%) requiring, on average 1,192 zygotes.

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