Direct in vivo mapping of functional suppressors in glioblastoma genome
Ryan D. Chow,
Christopher D Guzman,
Mark W. Youngblood,
Matthew B. Dong,
Michael A. Martinez,
Phillip A. Sharp,
Randall J Platt,
Posted 22 Jun 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/153460
Posted 22 Jun 2017
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the deadliest cancers, with limited effective treatments and single-digit five-year survival. A causative understanding of genetic factors that regulate GBM formation is of central importance. However, a global, quantitative and functional understanding of gliomagenesis in the native brain environment has been lacking due to multiple challenges. Here, we developed an adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated autochthonous CRISPR screen and directly mapped functional suppressors in the GBM genome. Stereotaxic delivery of an AAV library targeting significantly mutated genes into fully immunocompetent conditional Cas9 mice robustly led to gliomagenesis, resulting in tumors that recapitulate features of human GBM. Targeted capture sequencing revealed deep mutational profiles with diverse patterns across mice, uncovering in vivo roles of previously uncharacterized factors in GBM such as immune regulator B2m, zinc finger protein Zc3h13, transcription repressor Cic, epigenetic regulators Mll2/3 and Arid1b, alongside canonical tumor suppressors Nf1 and Pten. Comparative cancer genomics showed that the mutation frequencies across all genes tested in mice significantly correlate with those in human from two independent patient cohorts. Co-mutation analysis identified frequently co-occurring driver combinations, which were validated using AAV minipools, such as Mll2, B2m-Nf1, Mll3-Nf1 and Zc3h13-Rb1. Distinct from Nf1-oncotype tumors, Rb1-oncotype tumors exhibit undifferentiated histopathology phenotype and aberrant activation of developmental reprogramming signatures such as Homeobox gene clusters. The secondary addition of Zc3h13 or Pten mutations drastically altered the gene expression profiles of Rb1 mutants and rendered them more resistant to the GBM chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Our study provides a systematic functional landscape of GBM suppressors directly in vivo, opening new paths for high-throughput molecular mapping and cancer phenotyping.
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